Android开发 AsyncTask实现机制详细介绍及实例代码

来源:网页教学基地 时间:2017-01-10 09:01:35  浏览次数:0

Android AsyncTask实现机制

示例代码:

public final AsyncTask<Params, Progress, Result> execute(Params... params) {
    return executeOnExecutor(sDefaultExecutor, params);
  }

  public final AsyncTask<Params, Progress, Result> executeOnExecutor(Executor exec,
      Params... params) {
    if (mStatus != Status.PENDING) {
      switch (mStatus) {
        case RUNNING:
          throw new IllegalStateException("Cannot execute task:"
              + " the task is already running.");
        case FINISHED:
          throw new IllegalStateException("Cannot execute task:"
              + " the task has already been executed "
              + "(a task can be executed only once)");
      }
    }

    mStatus = Status.RUNNING;

    onPreExecute();

    mWorker.mParams = params;
    exec.execute(mFuture);

    return this;
  }

execute先调用onPreExecute()(可见,onPreExecute是自动调用的)然后调用exec.execute(mFuture)

 public interface Executor {
    void execute(Runnable command);
  }

这是一个接口,具体实现在

 private static class SerialExecutor implements Executor {
    final ArrayDeque<Runnable> mTasks = new ArrayDeque<Runnable>();
    Runnable mActive;

    public synchronized void execute(final Runnable r) {
      mTasks.offer(new Runnable() {
        public void run() {
          try {
            r.run();
          } finally {
            scheduleNext();
          }
        }
      });
      if (mActive == null) {
        scheduleNext();
      }
    }

    protected synchronized void scheduleNext() {
      if ((mActive = mTasks.poll()) != null) {
        THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR.execute(mActive);
      }
    }
  }

从上面可知,AsyncTask执行过程如下:先执行onPreExecute,然后交给SerialExecutor执行。在SerialExecutor中,先把Runnable添加到mTasks中。

如果没有Runnable正在执行,那么就调用SerialExecutor的scheduleNext。同时当一个Runnable执行完以后,继续执行下一个任务

AsyncTask中有两个线程池,THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR和SERIAL_EXECUTOR,以及一个Handler–InternalHandler

 /**
   * An {@link Executor} that can be used to execute tasks in parallel.
   */
  public static final Executor THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR
      = new ThreadPoolExecutor(CORE_POOL_SIZE, MAXIMUM_POOL_SIZE, KEEP_ALIVE,
          TimeUnit.SECONDS, sPoolWorkQueue, sThreadFactory);

  /**
   * An {@link Executor} that executes tasks one at a time in serial
   * order. This serialization is global to a particular process.
   */
  public static final Executor SERIAL_EXECUTOR = new SerialExecutor();

  private static InternalHandler sHandler;

SERIAL_EXECUTOR用于任务的排列,THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR真正执行线程,InternalHandler用于线程切换
先看构造函数

  public AsyncTask() {
    mWorker = new WorkerRunnable<Params, Result>() {
      public Result call() throws Exception {
        mTaskInvoked.set(true);

        Process.setThreadPriority(Process.THREAD_PRIORITY_BACKGROUND);
        //noinspection unchecked
        return postResult(doInBackground(mParams));
      }
    };

    mFuture = new FutureTask<Result>(mWorker) {
      @Override
      protected void done() {
        try {
          postResultIfNotInvoked(get());
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
          android.util.Log.w(LOG_TAG, e);
        } catch (ExecutionException e) {
          throw new RuntimeException("An error occured while executing doInBackground()",
              e.getCause());
        } catch (CancellationException e) {
          postResultIfNotInvoked(null);
        }
      }
    };
  }

看到了熟悉的doInBackground了吧,然后调用postResult

 private Result postResult(Result result) {
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    Message message = getHandler().obtainMessage(MESSAGE_POST_RESULT,
        new AsyncTaskResult<Result>(this, result));
    message.sendToTarget();
    return result;
  }

主线程中创建InternalHandler并发送MESSAGE_POST_RESULT消息,然后调用finish函数

 private static class InternalHandler extends Handler {
    public InternalHandler() {
      super(Looper.getMainLooper());
    }

    @SuppressWarnings({"unchecked", "RawUseOfParameterizedType"})
    @Override
    public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
      AsyncTaskResult<?> result = (AsyncTaskResult<?>) msg.obj;
      switch (msg.what) {
        case MESSAGE_POST_RESULT:
          // There is only one result
          result.mTask.finish(result.mData[0]);
          break;
        case MESSAGE_POST_PROGRESS:
          result.mTask.onProgressUpdate(result.mData);
          break;
      }
    }
  }

  private void finish(Result result) {
    if (isCancelled()) {
      onCancelled(result);
    } else {
      onPostExecute(result);
    }
    mStatus = Status.FINISHED;
  }

finish中调用onPostExecute。

AsyncTask工作流程:new MyThread().execute(1);

先构造函数,然后execute

构造函数只是准备了mWorker和mFuture这两个变量

execute中调用onPreExecute,然后exec.execute(mFuture),其中响应了call函数,call中调用doInBackground,然后将结果传给Handler然后finish掉,finish函数调用onPostExecute

你可能会奇怪,为什么没有onProgressUpdate,有注解可以解释

 /**
   * Runs on the UI thread after {@link #publishProgress} is invoked.
   * The specified values are the values passed to {@link #publishProgress}.
   *
   * @param values The values indicating progress.
   *
   * @see #publishProgress
   * @see #doInBackground
   */
  @SuppressWarnings({"UnusedDeclaration"})
  protected void onProgressUpdate(Progress... values) {
  }

也就是说必须调用publishProgress才会自动调用onProgressUpdate。
那如何调用publishProgress呢?

 /**
   * Override this method to perform a computation on a background thread. The
   * specified parameters are the parameters passed to {@link #execute}
   * by the caller of this task.
   *
   * This method can call {@link #publishProgress} to publish updates
   * on the UI thread.
   *
   * @param params The parameters of the task.
   *
   * @return A result, defined by the subclass of this task.
   *
   * @see #onPreExecute()
   * @see #onPostExecute
   * @see #publishProgress
   */
  protected abstract Result doInBackground(Params... params);

doInBackground说的很明确,在doInBackground函数里面显示调用publishProgress即可。

publishProgress源码:

 protected final void publishProgress(Progress... values) {
    if (!isCancelled()) {
      getHandler().obtainMessage(MESSAGE_POST_PROGRESS,
          new AsyncTaskResult<Progress>(this, values)).sendToTarget();
    }
  }

  private static class InternalHandler extends Handler {
    public InternalHandler() {
      super(Looper.getMainLooper());
    }

    @SuppressWarnings({"unchecked", "RawUseOfParameterizedType"})
    @Override
    public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
      AsyncTaskResult<?> result = (AsyncTaskResult<?>) msg.obj;
      switch (msg.what) {
        case MESSAGE_POST_RESULT:
          // There is only one result
          result.mTask.finish(result.mData[0]);
          break;
        case MESSAGE_POST_PROGRESS:
          //****************************************在这里调用
          result.mTask.onProgressUpdate(result.mData);
          break;
      }
    }
  }

感谢阅读,希望能帮助到大家,谢谢大家对本站的支持!

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